"Zafarnama" is a religio-historical documentary based on the two great epistles written by Sri Guru Gobind Singh to the then reigning Mughal monarch Aurangzeb Alamghir .Fatehnamah and Zafarnama are two compositions of Sri Guru Gobind Singh ,in Persian verse,that he addressed to Aurangzeb after the fateful events that followed in the wake of the evacuation of Anandpur on the night of 21st December 1704.These ' Letters of admonition ' or 'epistles of Victory' as they are better known, embody the indomitable spirit of Sri Guru Gobind Singh and his Khalsa,and their refusal to bow to the brutal will of a tyrant. Notwithstanding the tremendous loses in men and material ,including his children, and the temporary set backs , as a consequence of the amoral and tracherous tactics of the enemy,the Guru tells Aurangzeb that they should not lead him to believe that he had won. " His Khalsa remains invinsible and is in a position to all his evil and aggressive designs"
Of these two compositions, Fatehnama is comparatively lesser known,having come to light at a much later date. Fatehnama appears to have been written almost immediately after the battle of Chamkaur and at a time when Sri Guru Gobind Singh was not as yet aware of the fate of his two younger sons. In all probability therefore , Fatehnama was composed at Machhiwara where the Guru, after leaving Chamkaur, had the opprotunity to stay for two days with Nabhi khan and Ghani Khan - the Pathan brothers . Bhai Dya Singh was entrusted with the task of delivering the letter Fatehnama, personally to Aurangzeb.
Zafarnama, the better known Persian composition of Sri Guru Gobind Singh, was written at Dina ,sometime in early 1705 A.D evidently in reply to the aforesaid communication from the Mughal Monarch. Zafarnama like Fatehnama is in chaste Persian verse and both the compositions are unique examples of epistolary poetry. In them the masnavi meter of Firdausi and Nizami has been employed and the choice of words is impeccable.
Besides being a tribute to the literary excellence of Sri Guru Gobind Singh, these compositions are of immense historical value. As an authentic contemporary evidence, they provide an insight into the causes that bedevelled the relations between the Hindu hill chiefs and their Mughal suzerains on the other.
Bhai Dya Singh and Bhai Dharam Singh who were entrusted with the task of delivering the letter Zafarnama personally to Aurangzeb at Ahmednagar, ultimately succeeded in their mission ,albeit after some initial difficulties . Sri Guru Gobind Singh's letter to Aurangzeb appears to have produced the desired effect. The manner in which he was overwhelmed by the contents of 'Zafarnama' is indicated by the highly repentant and remorseful mood of the King in his last two letters to his sons. This is further endorsed by the fact that after the receipt of the letter from Sri Guru Gobind singh, the King sent imperial massengers to Talwandi Sabo inviting the Guru for a personal meeting in the South. To facilitate such a meeting, Munim Khan at Lahore was instructed to 'conciliate' Sri Guru Gobind Singh and also to make satisfactory arrangements for his travel towards the South. It was apparently in response to such invitation that the Guru travelled towards Deccan from Talwandi sabo by the end of 1706 A.D, although at Baghaur in Rajasthan ,he got the news of Aurangzeb's death and then he decided to proceed towards Delhi.